flashrom is a utility for identifying, reading, writing, verifying and erasing flash chips. It is designed to flash BIOS/EFI/coreboot/firmware/optionROM images on mainboards, network/graphics/storage controller cards, and various other programmer devices. Supports more than 476 flash chips, 291 chipsets, 500 mainboards, 79 PCI devices, 17 USB devices and various parallel/serial port-based programmers. Supports parallel, LPC, FWH and SPI flash interfaces and various chip packages. No physical access needed, root access is sufficient (for mainboards, presumably).
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